Wednesday, 6 July 2016

Chocolate, divine drink that conquered Europe’s

Una chocolatada
A chocolatada
Snack with chocolate in a French house in the eighteenth century. Oil by François Boucher. Louvre, Paris 

Despite initial misgivings, in the seventeenth century chocolate drink it became fashionable European high society

On April 3, 1502, Christopher Colón was going out, once again, of the port of Seville. His idea was to find a maritime step that, from Central America, was taking it, to the end, to Asia. It was his fourth voyage to the New World, and the route had its difficulties. One day, in half of a storm, the navigator and his men were forced to disembark. Apparently, they intercepted then a Mayan craft that was taking as load a few almonds to which Colon did not grant importance. Without knowing it, the Admiral had the first contact with the seeds of the cacao tree.
More than two hundred years later, Madrid was consuming more than five tons of chocolate a year. According to the chronicles of the moment, there was no street in the capital in the one that was not selling. This can illustrate that I begin an evil not always it is determinant, since the chocolate is obtained of the almonds that Colon had rejected.
We do not know which was the first contact between the Spanish and the tipsy chocolate that Maya and Aztecs were consuming, for whom this product was very important. The Maya made written the first references of the history to his consumption in the Codex called of Madrid, preserved in the Museum of America. For your part, the Aztecs were thinking that the seeds of those who were obtaining the chocolate were not but the materialization of Quetzalcoatl, god of the wisdom.

El árbol del cacao
Tenochtitlan to Madrid

So important was the cocoa to the Aztecs almonds used as currency. Peter Martyr, of  Anglería, Chronicler of The Indies, was said about it: "They use currency, not of metal, but of nutlets of certain trees, seemed to the almond " To understand better the exchanges realized in the Aztec world, the Spaniards drew up tables of equivalence. Thanks to them, we know that a hare paid in cocoa cost the same as the services of a prostitute.
At first the Spaniards showed rejection chocolate, because according to the chronicler Gonzalo Fernandez of Oviedo, lips were as bloodstained after drinking it. Apart from it, his bitter and piquant flavor had not just convinced them. Girolamo Benzoni, in his history of nuovo mondo, came to show that "
the chocolate was looking like rather a drink for porks that to be consumed by the humanity."
Despite everything, in the 16th century it came to Spain and was presented to Charles V by Hernan Cortes. From that moment, its acceptance would increase, managing to reach very high levels.

The victory of the chocolate
According to diverse authors, the monks were responsible for spreading the chocolate consumption in monasteries. With the time, would the Cistercians who will attain greater fame as chocolatiers
But not all the religious ones proved to be favorable to his consumption. In this sense, the Jesuits were thinking that chocolate were contrary to the precepts of mortification and poverty. Since the nutritious beverage also took into periods of fasting, soon a debate between advocates and opponents of this custom was opened. It was in the seventeenth century when answer to the question was given. Come from the hand of François Marie Cardinal Brancaccio, who eventually stating: "the liquidum non frangit jejunum", ie, "the liquid does not break the fast." The Church accepted the consumption of drinking chocolate.
Precisely, in the seventeenth century, served as a hot chocolate drink, became indispensable part of the "entertainment" snacks ritual followed the nobles offered their views. It used to be accompanied by biscuits and other sweets for dipping. If the snack is held in winter, if the snack is held in winter, it was normal to be taken in the heat of the braziers on podiums living rooms, between cushions and tapestries. If chocolate starring a summer snack, usually served with a "snow vase," a glass of ice
. Since chocolate is consumed very thick, stains that produced the spill were very annoying. But one day in 1640, Mr. Pedro Alvarez of Toledo and Leiva, viceroy of Peru and first Marquis of Mancera, came up with a solution. He invented a container consisting of a small tray with central clamp, which was holding the gourd, small vessel without a handle within which the chocolate is poured. In honor of its inventor, the tray would be christened mancerina. According to the social level who served the meal, the mancerinas could be silver, porcelain or earthenware.

Fashion comes to Versailles

Chocolate consumption in Spain known widely disseminated throughout the seventeenth century and was announced in the confectioneries such as the "drink that comes from the Indies." The habit of drinking chocolate was so widespread that even the ladies of the nobility did serve in half the long and boring church sermons. The bishops, offended, banned this form of consumption.
Soon, the rest of Europe, especially France, adopted this sweet tradition. One of those responsible was Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III, who exported the habit of snacking and breakfast chocolate after her wedding to Louis XIII. Maria Teresa of Austria, daughter of Philip IV and wife of Louis XIV, strengthened this practice by taking chocolate regularly in their new country.
When the Bourbons came to Spain they were very fond of chocolate. Above all, Felipe V and his son Charles III, who used to have breakfast with this drink. It was precisely Carlos III, in an effort to create an industry that sit the foundations for economic development of the country, who allowed the exclusive monopoly between Real Madrid and the Captaincy General of Venezuela exchange. Through the centralized system that characterized his reign, the monarch created an institution responsible for managing trade, called Royal Company Guipuzcoana de Caracas. The product reached the Spanish tables through grocery stores.
He also was in the eighteenth century when the chocolate broke into the pastry. Juan de la Mata used it as an ingredient to make sweets dry in some recipes from her book Art pastries. De la Mata himself was a forerunner of the chocolate mousse by inventing what he called chocolate mousse, something very similar to the mousse.


The preparation of the product would then be consumed was the responsibility of the grinder. He traveled the country with a curved stone on the back. Following the technique called the metate, consisting of ground, kneeling, and said stone, cocoa beans. Slowly, and with great effort, drew a uniform liquid mass, known as cocoa paste. The Valencian lawyer Marcos Antonio Orellana speaks of it in this poem: "O divine chocolate / grind that you kneel / folded hands you beat / and eyes to heaven you drink!".
Everything changed from the nineteenth century, when the Industrial Revolution techniques favored further cheapened consumption and cost. Soon, tea and coffee were moving to chocolate, which began to associate with revelers and night owls. Gone were the days when he was considered divine character, as he wrote Valle-Inclan: "Cocoa language of Anahuac / gods is bread or Cacahuac".
To know more
The true history of chocolate. Michael and Sophie D. Coe. FCE, Mexico, 1999.

 Problems encountered when translating.
 As in all translations, the form of an English text is different from the one in Spanish, which poses problems when grouping paragraphs.

Techniques applied:
·       the use of reformulation, which is a good example in the next section (No sabemos cuál fue el primer contacto entre los españoles y el chocolate bebido que consumían mayas y aztecas, para quienes este producto era muy importante), We do not know what was the first contact between the Spanish and the drunk who consumed chocolate Mayans and Aztecs,which is to express something very different in the language that translates mode, which is very common when translating cliches, the which would make no sense to the reader if translated literally
·       Among the techniques used have often been used Transpose. This technique, which involves changing the grammatical structures but maintaining the idea:
Para entender mejor los intercambios realizados en el mundo azteca, los españoles elaboraron unas tablas de equivalencia
To better understand the exchanges in the Aztec world, the Spaniards drew up tables of correspondence

form in which translation is done

are the tools that are used based on strategies and techniques for translation
are the steps construing apply at the time of translating


Diccionarios bilingües: Collins English-Spanish-English Dictionary, Harrap´s English-Spanish-English Dictionary

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