Wednesday, 6 July 2016



 By: Lisbeth Fernanda Cardona Paz

In northern Italy, right where the plains gazing upwards towards the Alps, the Lake District, which coexist natural scenery, historical heritage and artistic wealth spreads. Close to cities must as Milan, Verona and Trento, the mirror of water that is Lake Garda takes over the space and deceives the traveler into believing that it is a calm sea on the south shore, while in the north more reminiscent of a Norwegian fjord. In addition, a mild microclimate turns around the largest lake in Italy (370 km2) in a southern huertojardín where they grow crops like grapes, lemon, palm and laurel. Hence, from Roman times to the nineteenth century, the aristocracy has risen villas on the edge of the lagoon Lombard, whose banks also belong to the regions of Trentino and Veneto.

The seaside town of Sirmione, located at the southern end of the lake, is the starting point of this journey through the 150 kilometers of the Gardesana, winding road that skirts the lake and gives stunning views; another option, although slower, is to travel on ships that unite many peoples.

Sirmione sits on a peninsula that ends at the castle of Rocca Scaligera (XIII century), surrounded by walls. The beaches are another attraction of the place, as well as the Caves of Catullus, where the remains of a Roman villa in which it is believed that the poet lived in the first century B.C. are which gives its name; rooms, baths and patios are preserved, and the privileged position over the lake.

 Since there are only eleven kilometers Sirmione to Desenzano, the capital of the lake and also its largest city. There is advisable to walk the streets of the historic center and visit the church of Santa Maria Maddalena (XVI century), where you can admire the Last Supper by Tiepolo.

The route continues to climb up the west bank, along stately villas, farmhouses and hills with vineyards. On the way attractive stages as Salò, a town linked to the memory of Benito Mussolini emerge, even today shines thanks to its Renaissance palaces. A few kilometers you reach Gardone Riviera, where the aristocracy of the nineteenth century art deco villas built Il Vittoriale degli Italiani and today a museum, or occupying the André Heller Foundation, which shows a beautiful botanical garden.

It has now reached one of the most forested areas of Garda, where many hiking trails are proposed. There is Tignale, famous for its sanctuary hung on a hill, and Limone sul Garda, a town of Venetians and perfumed by citrus buildings.

 So Riva del Garda, the northernmost town of the lake and one of the most beautiful is reached. In 1912 she resided in the writer D. H. Lawrence who also find there the inspiration for several of his books, he left said that "the Garda is beautiful as the beginning of creation." Riva abound in classical mansions, restaurants bordering the lake and hikers that are based routes to the nearby Alps.

It now falls to the east bank Malcesine, village Gustav Klimt the painter immortalized in 1913. It huddles around the slender Scaligero castle, which includes a room dedicated to Goethe who mentions in his Voyage to Italy (1813). A cable car up Mount Baldo (1,760 m), with one of the best views over the Garda.

The relaxing coastal walk passes near the Punta San Virgilio, one of the most charming corners of the lake, and ends in Bardolino. This town also is an excellent gastronomic bardolino to enjoy the wines, marinated perfectly with cheeses Garda region.



Getting there and around: From Spain it flies to Milan (Lombardy), from where trains to Sirmione (137 km). Verona (Veneto) is 42 km away and Trento (Trentino), 127 km. It is best to rent a car to explore the area freely.

ü  Malcesine

It is one of the most beautiful villages of Garda, dominated by Mount Baldo and the lake water near its shores restaurants.

ü  Riva del Garda

This town of 17,000 inhabitants, the northernmost lake, sits where the north shore touches the Trentino region. Its center shows a majestic architecture, labyrinthine streets and broad market square, where the Apponmale Tower, a lookout tower 34 m high stands.

ü  Limone sul Garda

The attractions of this town perfumed by citrus and flowers are the churches of San Pietro in Oliveto and its cozy port.

ü  Monte Castello

This sanctuary (XIII and XIV centuries) overlooking the lake from a wooded hill in the municipality of Tignale.

ü  The stages of the route by Lake Garda

1.     Sirmione. It sits on a peninsula which culminates in the medieval castle of Rocca Scaligera (s. XIII).

2.     Desenzano. Your visit should include the Old Port, the Cathedral and the arcaded houses.

3.    Limone sul Garda. This village preserves buildings of the Venetian period.

4.     Riva del Garda. Worth a visit the Museum of the Rocca and the mansions of the eighteenth century the Old Town.

5.     Punta San Vigilio. It is accessed from outside the village of Garda and hosts the Renaissance Villa Garuenti.



To translate text from Spanish to English there is great complexity in the grammar of one language to another, because the rules that define each language change in many aspects, which must be taken into account and not miss any detail, because in doing so, It would be affected the document to be translated.


ü  Technical procedures:
Analysis of the source and target languages; a through study of the source language text before making attempts translate it; Making judgments of the semantic and syntactic approximations. (pp. 241-45)

ü  Organizational procedures:
Constant reevaluation of the attempt made; contrasting it with the existing available translations of the same text done by other translators, and checking the text's communicative effectiveness by asking the target language readers to evaluate its accuracy and effectiveness and studying their reactions (pp. 246-47).
Krings (1986:18) defines translation strategy as "translator's potentially conscious plans for solving concrete translation problems in the framework of a concrete translation task," and Seguinot (1989) believes that there are at least three global strategies employed by the translators: (i) translating without interruption for as long as possible; (ii) correcting surface errors immediately; (iii) leaving the monitoring for qualitative or stylistic errors in the text to the revision stage.
. Read the entire text before you start. Although in many cases it may be tempting to jump immediately into translate, the first thing you should do is read the entire text (or at least read it above). This will help to give you an initial idea of the theme and style, as well as the extent and level of difficulty of the text.

. Review, edit and make decisions
1) Respect for the context: A translator without context there is no one. It is impossible to get a good translation without considering about the setting in which we move, to whom it is directed, for what purpose, etc, Each document has some specific needs that a translator must learn and master.
2) Obtain prior information: There are to collect information about the topic in question. Key is to be up to date on the knowledge included in our translation, using material that is already published or similar to previously translated or other reference documents. So it will be useful to consult the information related to the text to translate, which can be found in text-books, doctoral theses, manuals, patents already granted in the same field and even in specialized forums.
3) Work with the terminology and location of the text: Before you start a translation, we should locate dictionaries and glossaries (printed, on-line on the Internet) on the topic(s) involved in the same. Make a glossary prior to the most important terms will be of great help.
4) Monitor the grammar and the spelling: Must always be respected the rules of spelling and grammar of the target language.
Technical procedures
 Analysis of the source and target languages; a through study of the source language text before making attempts translate it; Making judgments of the semantic and syntactic approximations
Organizational  procedures
Constant reevaluation of the attempt made; contrasting it with the existing available translations of the same text done by other translators, and checking the text's communicative effectiveness by asking the target language readers to evaluate its accuracy and effectiveness and studying their reactions


ü  Diccionarios bilingües: Collins English-Spanish-English Dictionary, Harrap´s English-Spanish-English Dictionary

Chocolate, divine drink that conquered Europe’s

Una chocolatada
A chocolatada
Snack with chocolate in a French house in the eighteenth century. Oil by François Boucher. Louvre, Paris 

Despite initial misgivings, in the seventeenth century chocolate drink it became fashionable European high society

On April 3, 1502, Christopher Colón was going out, once again, of the port of Seville. His idea was to find a maritime step that, from Central America, was taking it, to the end, to Asia. It was his fourth voyage to the New World, and the route had its difficulties. One day, in half of a storm, the navigator and his men were forced to disembark. Apparently, they intercepted then a Mayan craft that was taking as load a few almonds to which Colon did not grant importance. Without knowing it, the Admiral had the first contact with the seeds of the cacao tree.
More than two hundred years later, Madrid was consuming more than five tons of chocolate a year. According to the chronicles of the moment, there was no street in the capital in the one that was not selling. This can illustrate that I begin an evil not always it is determinant, since the chocolate is obtained of the almonds that Colon had rejected.
We do not know which was the first contact between the Spanish and the tipsy chocolate that Maya and Aztecs were consuming, for whom this product was very important. The Maya made written the first references of the history to his consumption in the Codex called of Madrid, preserved in the Museum of America. For your part, the Aztecs were thinking that the seeds of those who were obtaining the chocolate were not but the materialization of Quetzalcoatl, god of the wisdom.

El árbol del cacao
Tenochtitlan to Madrid

So important was the cocoa to the Aztecs almonds used as currency. Peter Martyr, of  Anglería, Chronicler of The Indies, was said about it: "They use currency, not of metal, but of nutlets of certain trees, seemed to the almond " To understand better the exchanges realized in the Aztec world, the Spaniards drew up tables of equivalence. Thanks to them, we know that a hare paid in cocoa cost the same as the services of a prostitute.
At first the Spaniards showed rejection chocolate, because according to the chronicler Gonzalo Fernandez of Oviedo, lips were as bloodstained after drinking it. Apart from it, his bitter and piquant flavor had not just convinced them. Girolamo Benzoni, in his history of nuovo mondo, came to show that "
the chocolate was looking like rather a drink for porks that to be consumed by the humanity."
Despite everything, in the 16th century it came to Spain and was presented to Charles V by Hernan Cortes. From that moment, its acceptance would increase, managing to reach very high levels.

The victory of the chocolate
According to diverse authors, the monks were responsible for spreading the chocolate consumption in monasteries. With the time, would the Cistercians who will attain greater fame as chocolatiers
But not all the religious ones proved to be favorable to his consumption. In this sense, the Jesuits were thinking that chocolate were contrary to the precepts of mortification and poverty. Since the nutritious beverage also took into periods of fasting, soon a debate between advocates and opponents of this custom was opened. It was in the seventeenth century when answer to the question was given. Come from the hand of François Marie Cardinal Brancaccio, who eventually stating: "the liquidum non frangit jejunum", ie, "the liquid does not break the fast." The Church accepted the consumption of drinking chocolate.
Precisely, in the seventeenth century, served as a hot chocolate drink, became indispensable part of the "entertainment" snacks ritual followed the nobles offered their views. It used to be accompanied by biscuits and other sweets for dipping. If the snack is held in winter, if the snack is held in winter, it was normal to be taken in the heat of the braziers on podiums living rooms, between cushions and tapestries. If chocolate starring a summer snack, usually served with a "snow vase," a glass of ice
. Since chocolate is consumed very thick, stains that produced the spill were very annoying. But one day in 1640, Mr. Pedro Alvarez of Toledo and Leiva, viceroy of Peru and first Marquis of Mancera, came up with a solution. He invented a container consisting of a small tray with central clamp, which was holding the gourd, small vessel without a handle within which the chocolate is poured. In honor of its inventor, the tray would be christened mancerina. According to the social level who served the meal, the mancerinas could be silver, porcelain or earthenware.

Fashion comes to Versailles

Chocolate consumption in Spain known widely disseminated throughout the seventeenth century and was announced in the confectioneries such as the "drink that comes from the Indies." The habit of drinking chocolate was so widespread that even the ladies of the nobility did serve in half the long and boring church sermons. The bishops, offended, banned this form of consumption.
Soon, the rest of Europe, especially France, adopted this sweet tradition. One of those responsible was Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III, who exported the habit of snacking and breakfast chocolate after her wedding to Louis XIII. Maria Teresa of Austria, daughter of Philip IV and wife of Louis XIV, strengthened this practice by taking chocolate regularly in their new country.
When the Bourbons came to Spain they were very fond of chocolate. Above all, Felipe V and his son Charles III, who used to have breakfast with this drink. It was precisely Carlos III, in an effort to create an industry that sit the foundations for economic development of the country, who allowed the exclusive monopoly between Real Madrid and the Captaincy General of Venezuela exchange. Through the centralized system that characterized his reign, the monarch created an institution responsible for managing trade, called Royal Company Guipuzcoana de Caracas. The product reached the Spanish tables through grocery stores.
He also was in the eighteenth century when the chocolate broke into the pastry. Juan de la Mata used it as an ingredient to make sweets dry in some recipes from her book Art pastries. De la Mata himself was a forerunner of the chocolate mousse by inventing what he called chocolate mousse, something very similar to the mousse.


The preparation of the product would then be consumed was the responsibility of the grinder. He traveled the country with a curved stone on the back. Following the technique called the metate, consisting of ground, kneeling, and said stone, cocoa beans. Slowly, and with great effort, drew a uniform liquid mass, known as cocoa paste. The Valencian lawyer Marcos Antonio Orellana speaks of it in this poem: "O divine chocolate / grind that you kneel / folded hands you beat / and eyes to heaven you drink!".
Everything changed from the nineteenth century, when the Industrial Revolution techniques favored further cheapened consumption and cost. Soon, tea and coffee were moving to chocolate, which began to associate with revelers and night owls. Gone were the days when he was considered divine character, as he wrote Valle-Inclan: "Cocoa language of Anahuac / gods is bread or Cacahuac".
To know more
The true history of chocolate. Michael and Sophie D. Coe. FCE, Mexico, 1999.

 Problems encountered when translating.
 As in all translations, the form of an English text is different from the one in Spanish, which poses problems when grouping paragraphs.

Techniques applied:
·       the use of reformulation, which is a good example in the next section (No sabemos cuál fue el primer contacto entre los españoles y el chocolate bebido que consumían mayas y aztecas, para quienes este producto era muy importante), We do not know what was the first contact between the Spanish and the drunk who consumed chocolate Mayans and Aztecs,which is to express something very different in the language that translates mode, which is very common when translating cliches, the which would make no sense to the reader if translated literally
·       Among the techniques used have often been used Transpose. This technique, which involves changing the grammatical structures but maintaining the idea:
Para entender mejor los intercambios realizados en el mundo azteca, los españoles elaboraron unas tablas de equivalencia
To better understand the exchanges in the Aztec world, the Spaniards drew up tables of correspondence

form in which translation is done

are the tools that are used based on strategies and techniques for translation
are the steps construing apply at the time of translating


Diccionarios bilingües: Collins English-Spanish-English Dictionary, Harrap´s English-Spanish-English Dictionary


Walking this paradise of giant trees, unique animals and coral beaches I went to Madagascar to admire the baobabs of Morondava, but I found an island 1,600 kilometer long that loved me for its varied landscapes: paddies, lush vegetation, animals as curious as lemurs and magnificent beaches south and north. 
In Madagascar almost all it starts in the capital, Antananarivo (Tana for friends), a noisy city that spreads by 18 hills, with street markets, a lake and a palace. In Tana I became familiar with the local currency, the ariary, I learned that rice is the staple food and rented, with my friend Patrick, a French guide who has spent years on the island, an SUV to go to Morondava vehicle.

Tana Leaving everything changes. The urban chaos is diluted and overlook the Highlands, A green landscape of rolling hills, red soil and paddy fields. " The mixture of Africa and Asia in the landscape because the Indonesian island peopled ", Patrick tells me .We passed many Taxi Brousse , minibuses loaded in excess whose drivers risk their lives to earn a few minutes.
In Antsirabe, 160km south of Tana, the pousse - pousses (carts pulled by a man) Asian confirm the vocation of the island. Here the road is diverted to Morondava through a landscape where meadows where grazing zebu alternate with sugar cane plantations and forests depleted illustrating deforestation of the island. A mouthwatering samosas (typical South Asian dumplings) served lunch in one of the many stops next to the road. 
Shortly before the first baobabs Morondava appear, reigning over the rice fields. They are the type Adansonia grandidieri, reaching 30 meter high. Baobabs only grow in Africa and the west coast of Australia, but in Madagascar live up to seven species. Hence to be known as "the mother island of baobabs” although the British writer Gerald Durrell (1925-1995) preferred fauna, whose protection is still devotes Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.
Just at the entrance of Morondava a poster announces the school Le Petit Prince with a drawing of the Prince de Saint-Exupery. Beyond, a dusty streets and a beach battered by cyclones Morondava become a soulless population.
When evening falls we approach the so-called Avenue of the Baobabs , close to the city. The slanting light of evening shadows lengthen and beautifies the red trunks, while a cart moving on the road. "I came from Tokyo just to see this," Japanese confesses me with tears of emotion.A few steps, a few baobabs entwine their trunks: the tree lovers.
About 200 kilometers north of Morondava is the Tsingy Bemaraha Park. It's like an enchanted forest of stone, with sharp limestone pinnacles that also populate the reserve of Ankarana in the north. Here we must be careful with the fady, the Malagasy word for taboo and indicating, for example, you should never point a tomb with your finger. 
Madagascar is a large island you learn as you go devouring kilometers. In my journey south, herds of zebu and Malagasy shepherds, wrapped in colorful blankets, foreshadow the arrival in Ambositra. In this city jams pousse - pousses are repeated, but there is also a special agitation as Savika parties are held. We followed the crowd to a stadium where young people compete trying to mount threatening zebu horns.
A few kilometers away, around Fianarantsoa they are an ideal place for trekking through rice fields and villages minimal field. But it is in the gorges of Isalo Park with lakes and waterfalls, where the view of the ringed brings me back to Madagascar lemurs dreamed. Improvised settlements seekers sapphires, fever Madagascan gold, preceding later the return of baobabs in the region Tulear, a population that has sandy beaches and restaurants serving steak flavored zebu with spices on the island especially vanilla.
A few days later we flew north to the island of Nosy Be, where tropical vegetation surrounds beaches where fish, lobster and black coral abound. On the east coast of Madagascar there is a similar paradise in Sainte -Marie Island with palm fringed beaches and crystal waters. 
Back on land, we follow the north coast by taxi - brousse to Diego Suarez, a city which left its mark French colonial presence. It was here that pirates founded in the seventeenth century, the utopian republic of Libertalia. "The spoils were divided equally," Patrick tells me, "but did not have the local population. One day down the Madagascan Mountains and ended with everyone and everything. “Long ago there is nothing of that ephemeral pirate republic, but on the main street of Diego Suarez a painted recalls the utopia that reigned in the north of this island dream.

When performing reading "Madagascar, the great Indian Island" to the English language,
it was so difficult because there were many terms that I didn’t know and I had to use 
the dictionary to consult the unknown idiomatic terms and try to identify and understand
the right term that really fit to the reading sense and do not decontextualize the real 
meaning of the text, it was due to cultural environment., for example asiatica, deforestation
off-road, as well as native word of India which I unknown and I did spend a lot of time
to discover this kind of words. From the foregoing, it was necessary to use the dictionary 
and translator to improve the understanding of the text and to make a good translation of
the text.

Due to the number of words from the country of India, which I took directly without translating
apply the technique of the loan, just apply the technique of calque it was to translate phrases
for word to give meaning to prayer, finally when I was with phrases that should change its 
grammatical form used the technique transposition. 

Using these techniques I learned new meanings of words much more increase my vocabulary.


Monday, 4 July 2016

Farnesina Village: A paintings´ gallery under the Tiber

Farnesina Village: A paintings´ gallery under the Tiber

Translated by Diana Guevara from its original language

In 1879 an urban remodeling in Rome brought to light the remains of a Roman home from the I B.C. century with splendid frescos.
A catastrophic flooding of the Tiber occurred on December 28th 1870 while passing through Rome. From the very beginning the city suffered from the repeated flooding of this kind, but nowadays the Italian government decided to provide all the resources to prevent them from happening. A committee squad of the best hydraulic engineers from the time and on 1875 with the impulse of Giusseppe Garibaldi, Raffache Canevari´s project was approved, which proposed to build walls on the margins of the river, clean and expand its riverbed until reaching 100 meters of width on its trail around the city.
In the Farnesina Village, a beautiful renaissance residence on the right side of the river shore, the riverbed did not measure more than 40 meters, which is why other 60 meters were dug out in order to reach the width established by the Canevari project. It was during the construction work on March 1879 that ´´the noble remains of a private house of the Augustea age with the most exquisite mural paintings that had never before been seen in Rome.´´ were shown to the world according to the archeologist Rodolfo Lancians on his first report.
The residence was indeed part of the Emperor Augusto´s age ( 27 B.C. – 14 A.D.) and it stood out because of its frescos and stuccos miraculously conserved. Up until that moment the examples of Roman parietal paintings that appeared in the empire´s capital, the only ones that were known were the ones at the Livia house in Palatino and at the Auditory of Mecinas in Erquilino, which is why the study of antique roman painting was based exclusively on the contemporary discoveries of the Pompeiians.

Operation Rescue
The archeologist had to work under a great deal of pressure. The architectural remains of the house were eliminated due to ´´public utility reasons.´´ Such was the urgency that the engineer in charge of the follow up and digging excavations, Domenico Marchetti, complained on June 1879 of not being able to guarantee the exact planimetry, due to the fact that the old walls were knocked down before he could measure or draw its position. The only thing that was decided to keep was decorative elements: frescos, stuccos, and mosaics. Some of them were lost, especially black and white geometric mosaics, and others got stolen or sold to art merchants that stood beside the excavation sites to bribe the workers. However, most of the paintings were transferred over huge plank to the Botanic Garden, until they were taken to its final destination in the Termas de Diocleciano, the first branch of the National Roman Museum in 1889. 
On September 1879 a well-known journalist from La Stampa wrote: ´´ It is a very special and curious work done with great ability and patience. Each one of those frescos was taken from the walls, they can be taken as if they were a piece of fabric, it is cleaned and placed on a frame. That is how many beautiful paintings are made. I have already seen a few of them framed and I may tell you that it is something my eyes had never seen.´´
It is believed that this splendid village was built by Marco Vipsanio Agripa around 21 B.C. , when he got married with Julia, Augusto´s daughter. A neighborhood filled mainly by art workshops and big storage homes like wineries that were found in 1880 in the vicinity of the village, rose on the Trastevere. Although it was not a highly populated residential suburban zone like the nearby Janiculum or the Vatican areas, the Latin sources place in them other famous villages such as the one of Clodia, lover of the poet Catulo, or the one of Casio Longino, one of the murderers of Cesar, and also the beautiful gardens of the dictator, the horti Caesariani, connected to the heart of the Urbe by a bridge made by Agripa.

Luxury next to the Tiber
The watercolor paintings of Domenico Marchetti and Rodolfo Lanciani´s report are the only testimonies conserved of the village´s architecture. It was about a residence on the shore of the Tiber, with a view to the Campo the Marte and with scenery made up of two symmetrical bodies shown on both side of a big exedra. The paintings decorated nine estancias of the winter wing: three bedrooms, the dining room, the lobby and the entrance, a hallway that communicated the bedrooms with the servants, the garden and the internal hallway of the central exedra.

The quality of the paintings, the quantity of the details and the decorative motives depended on the function of the spaces and the social Rank of the people that had access to them. In that way the environments where the chief welcomed his customers had an austere decoration, while the ones where the guest were invited had the most rich and elaborate paintings. These magnificent frescos are conserved nowadays in the Massimo alle Terme Palace in the rooms that look like the original house. 
Problems Faced
During the translation of the article what I found the most difficult to translate were the names of the buildings and vocabulary related to architecture, such as planimetria, cauce, acuarelas, semienterrado, and the word nobilisima. In order to solve this difficulty the words were looked up in various dictionaries until a word that matched the context of the article was found. The translation method used for this task was the faithful translation method since preserving the contextual meaning for the original text was the most important because it dealt with a historical discovery. Hence, why the words were looked up in order to find accurate lexicon that coincided with the context of the text.

It relates to the method chosen to translate a whole text. There are 8 methods:
1. Word-for-word
2. Literal 3. Faithful
4. Semantic 5. Adaptation 6. Free 7. Idiomatic
 8. Communicative.
A translation strategy is the plan the translator applies in order to consciously solve a problem encountered while translating a text. It involves choosing a method to approach the text.
Used to translate parts of the text such as sentences, phrases or single words.


La villa Farnesina: una galería de pintura bajo el Tíber. (2014) Retrieved on June 28th, 2016 from

Ordudari, Mahmoud. Translation procedures, strategies and methods Retrieved on June 25th, 2016 from